We investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on maturation ability and radiosensitivity of oocytes enclosed in preantral and antral follicles. Balb/c female mice received total body single dose gamma radiation (7.2 Gy) at the diestrous to proestrous transition period. In the first experiment, spontaneously ovulated oocytes were collected from irradiated animals. In the second experiment, irradiated animals were allowed to superovulate to assess the ovarian function. The spontaneous ovulation rate of the follicles exposed at antral stage was significantly lower than the sham-irradiated mice (p < 0.01), and most of the oocytes were found at the metaphase I stage. Oocyte morphology and the ovulation rate of the follicles exposed at preantral stage were similar to the sham-irradiated group. Minimal morphological abnormalities were observed in the oocytes and the polar body as well. The superovulation response of all the irradiated animals was lower than the respective control animals. The superovulation rate was significantly lower in the first ovulation after irradiation (p < 0.01). In conclusion, our findings indicate that total body gamma irradiation, on a basis of estrous cycle stages, leads to ovulation failure in the antral stage while causes abnormal oocyte morphology in the preantral stage follicles in mice.