Background/Aims: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic gallstones. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of cholecystectomy on alkaline reflux, histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa and H. pylori colonization. Methodology: Eighty five patients who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this trial (20 males; 65 females; 44.97 +/- 11.22 years). All the patients had an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy before and 6 months after the surgery and biopsies in the antrum and corpus were taken to investigate the mucosal changes and assay for the presence of H. pylori. Results: At 6 months post-surgery, the presence of bile in the fasting gastric fluid and an increase in the endoscopic gastritis findings were detected. While none of the patients had chemical gastritis prior to surgery, 7 patients were diagnosed with this condition after surgery. Intestinal metaplasia was detected in 6 patients prior to surgery and 20 patients after surgery. H. pylori was observed in 64 patients before surgery and 52 patients after surgery Conclusions: An increase in duodenogastric reflux, alkaline reflux gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, and a reduction in H. pylori colonization were observed to occur post-cholecystectomy.