Hate Crime Legislation in Football Context: The Cases of Turkey and the UK

Tekin D.

Second International Conference on Interdisciplinary Legal Studies 2015 , Toronto, Canada, 9 - 10 June 2015, pp.102

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Summary Text
  • City: Toronto
  • Country: Canada
  • Page Numbers: pp.102


Hate crime legislations, which have originated in the US, serve to cope with the offenders motivated by hostility or bias towards the perceived membership of victim to an identifiable group. In the UK, football has emerged as a context-specific field of application for such crimes, and a number of criminal offences have been introduced via a range of legal instruments such as Football Spectators Act 1989, Football Offences Act 1991 and Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications (Scotland) Act 2012. Moreover, tackling hate crime has been adopted as a long-term governmental project. In Turkey, on the other hand, hate crime is an unfamiliar concept. Both general and specific criminal provisions refer to 'discrimination' rather than hatred as an aggravating circumstance. Although the discourse of the Law can be interpreted as if the term 'discrimination' covers hate crimes, the introduction of a separate crime category would make some notable differences in practical terms. The paper thus will question the legislative lenience of the Turkish state on the issue by analysing the official attitudes towards hate crime and hate speech witnessed in the daily life and in particular at football stadiums. At this juncture, British legislative response will be utilised as a template to evaluate the Turkish State's social control policies.