Az avar kori nagy gyöngycsüngős fülbevalók – Large bead-pendant earrings from the Avar period

Balogh C. , Pásztor A.

in: Conference of young scholars on the Migration Period, Esztergom, Novembr 4–6. 2014. — Hadak útján. A népvándorláskor fiatal kutatóinak XXIV. konferenciája, Esztergom 2014. november 4–6. Studia ad Archaeologiam Pazmaniensia. Archaeological Studies of PPCU Department of Archaeology – A PPKE BTK Régészeti Tanszékének kiadványai 4. — Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Bölcsészettudományi Kutatóközpont Magyar Őstörténeti Témacsoport Kiadványok 3, Balogh Cs.,Major B., Editor, Archeolingua Foundation, Budapest, pp.581-625, 2016

  • Publication Type: Book Chapter / Chapter Research Book
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Publisher: Archeolingua Foundation
  • City: Budapest
  • Page Numbers: pp.581-625
  • Editors: Balogh Cs.,Major B., Editor


Among the bead-pendant earrings from the Avar Period the exemplare, which are larger than 8 millimeters, are classified into the type of large bead-pendant earrings. The full collection and analysis of this type of jewelry has not been made yet and the question of their chronological position has been touched only briefly (Ilona Kovrig, István Bóna, Győző Szabó János and Éva Garam). Different variants of this earring type are known from 132 graves of 61 Avar cemeteries (Table 1). The archaeological sites of this earring type are concentrated in the central territory of the area occupied by Avars, principally near Theis River and South-Transdanubia (Fig. 1). The large bead-pendant earring were weared by males, females and childrens, paired and without pair, sometimes with other types of earrings, for example with earring with large spherical pendant, earring with small spherical pendant, half-moon form earring, hoop earring. After the holistic congragation of this earring type we have classified them as wel as examined the territorial distribution of some types, the question of their origin and chronology together with the complex analysis of the other costume acessories, jewellery, weapons and other grave goods. The prototypes of the type of large bead pendant earrings should be searched mostly among the gold earrings with aquamarine pendant made by Byzantine goldsmith’s workshops. But the exemplares founded in the territory of the Avar Khaganate are mostly local products. The large bead-pendant earrings can be connected with earring with large and small spherical pendant as well as with the earrings with wire-axial spherical pendant, which are extremely rare in the Avar archaeological material of the Carpathian Basin. On the basis of connecting piece between the hoop earring and the bead pendant we have grouped 7 types of earrings (Fig. 5–15). In some types the earrings with flexible and infelxible axial can be esteemed versions of the same type. The fashion of the large bead-pendant errings had been taking on in the 2nd quarter of the 7th century and were in vouge at the turn of the 7th–8th centuries. The emergence of this earring type was related to slow fashion-change attached with technological-change of the making of the jewelry decorated with glass beads. The jewellery (earrings and necklace) made from monochrom beads with little bronze pipe were after this widespreaded and these were dominant parts of the jewel-fashion in the Middle and Late Avar Period.