Prognostic Value of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients with Severe COVID-19: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

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Açıksarı G., Koçak M., Çağ Y., Altunal L. N. , Atıcı A., Çelik F. B. , ...More

Biomarker insights, vol.16, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 16
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/11772719211027022
  • Journal Name: Biomarker insights
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Biomarkers, predictive value of tests, coronavirus, mortality, NEUTROPHIL, CANCER, RATIO


Background: The current knowledge about novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) indicates that the immune system and inflammatory response play a crucial role in the severity and prognosis of the disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate prognostic value of systemic inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: This single-center, retrospective study included a total of 223 patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19. Primary outcome measure was mortality during hospitalization. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors associated with mortality in patients with severe COVID-19. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine cut-offs, and area under the curve (AUC) values were used to demonstrate discriminative ability of biomarkers. Results: Compared to survivors of severe COVID-19, non-survivors had higher CAR, NLR, and PLR, and lower LMR and lower PNI (P < .05 for all). The optimal CAR, PNI, NLR, PLR, and LMR cut-off values for detecting prognosis were 3.4, 40.2, 6. 27, 312, and 1.54 respectively. The AUC values of CAR, PNI, NLR, PLR, and LMR for predicting hospital mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 were 0.81, 0.91, 0.85, 0.63, and 0.65, respectively. In ROC analysis, comparative discriminative ability of CAR, PNI, and NLR for hospital mortality were superior to PLR and LMR. Multivariate analysis revealed that CAR (> 0.34, P = .004), NLR (> 6.27, P = .012), and PNI (<= 40.2, P = .009) were independent predictors associated with mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: The CAR, PNI, and NLR are independent predictors of mortality in hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients and are more closely associated with prognosis than PLR or LMR.