Genetic diversity of Turkish honey bee populations was examined by PCR-RFLP of an anonymous nuclear DNA locus named 1231 region. The two halves of this locus, E(1)N and NE(2), were amplified from 70 bee colonies from 9 different localities. The restriction site differences responsible for the allelic RFLP patterns were determined. In one half of the 1231 region, E(1)N, was digested with BclI, HhaI and XhoI. The other half of this 1231 region, NE(2), was digested with AluI, NsiI, PstI, XhoI, HhaI and HindIII. One to seven different restriction patterns for each restriction enzyme were found in Turkish honey bees and reference samples, European and African honey bees.