Aim:Our study aimed to examine the relationship of the visceral adiposity index (VAI) with clinical and histological parameters in biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) cases and evaluate its place in clinical practice. Materials and Methods:The study included 57 biopsy-proven NAFLD cases and 57 healthy controls. The VAI values of the cases were calculated with the formula based on body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The relationships between VAI values and clinical and histological parameters were examined. Results:While the VAI was significantly higher in the NAFLD cases in comparison to the control group (3.5 +/- 3.09 vs. 1.60 +/- 0.98, respectively,P < 0.001), this difference was more noticeable in the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) group (3.60 +/- 3.35) (P < 0.001). In distinguishing the NAFLD group and the healthy group in VAI, it was determined that VAI had a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 68%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 76.9%. No significant relationship was found between the histological parameters and VAI scores. Conclusions:Our study showed that VAI was increased in the NAFLD cases. This increase was observed to be more noticeable in especially the NASH cases. It is possible for this index to be a practical modality that could be used in clinical practice in prediction of especially NASH cases, which constitute the progressive form of the disease, but in this sense, there is a need for further studies.