Vector-borne and zoonotic infections and their relationships with regional and socioeconomic statuses: An ID-IRI survey in 24 countries of Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Saydam F. N. , Erdem H., Ankarali H., El-Arab Ramadan M. E. , El-Sayed N. M. , Civljak R., ...More

Travel medicine and infectious disease, vol.44, pp.102174, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 44
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2021.102174
  • Journal Name: Travel medicine and infectious disease
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.102174
  • Keywords: Zoonosis, Economic status, Tick, Vector, Infection, ZOONOSES



In this cross-sectional, international study, we aimed to analyze vector-borne and zoonotic infections (VBZI), which are significant global threats.


VBZIs’ data between May 20–28, 2018 was collected. The 24 Participatingcountries were classified as lower-middle, upper-middle, and high-income.


382 patients were included. 175(45.8%) were hospitalized, most commonly in Croatia, Egypt, and Romania(P = 0.001). There was a significant difference between distributions of VBZIs according to geographical regions(P < 0.001). AmebiasisAncylostomiasisBlastocystosisCryptosporidiosisGiardiasisToxoplasmosis were significantly more common in the Middle-East while BartonellosisBorreliosisCat Scratch DiseaseHantavirus syndrome, RickettsiosisCampylobacteriosisSalmonellosis in Central/East/South-East Europe; Brucellosis and Echinococcosis in Central/West Asia; Campylobacteriosis, Chikungunya, Tick-borne encephalitis, Visceral Leishmaniasis, Salmonellosis, Toxoplasmosis in the North-Mediterranean; CCHFCutaneous LeishmaniasisDengue, Malaria, Taeniasis, Salmonellosis in Indian Subcontinent; Lassa Fever in West Africa. There were significant regional differences for viral hemorrhagic fevers(P < 0.001) and tick-borne infections(P < 0.001), and according to economic status for VBZIs(P < 0.001). The prevalences of VBZIs were significantly higher in lower-middle income countries(P = 0.001). The most similar regions were the Indian Subcontinent and the Middle-East, the Indian Subcontinent and the North-Mediterranean, and the Middle-East and North-Mediterranean regions.


Regional and socioeconomic heterogeneity still exists for VBZIs. Control and eradication of VBZIs require evidence-based surveillance data, and multidisciplinary efforts.