Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association, vol.37, pp.2031-2040, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)
Purpose: To investigate the possible effects of multisite injection therapy around the shoulder and prospectively compare the pain relief, range of motion (ROM), and functional scores of randomly selected patients with primary frozen shoulder using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score and the University of CaliforniaeLos Angeles score after the completion of a standard physiotherapy program. Methods: Seventy-six patients with primary frozen shoulder were randomly divided into 2 groups based on the treatment: multisite injection and single injection. In the multisite-injection group, the glenohumeral joint and posteroinferior capsule, subacromial space, posterosuperior capsule, biceps long head, and coracohumeral ligament were injected with a combination of 2 mL of triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/mL), 4 mL of bupivacaine (0.5%), and 34 mL of saline solution. The glenohumeral joint in the single-injection group was injected with 1 mL of triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/mL) and 2 mL of bupivacaine (0.5%). Patients in both groups underwent physical therapy using the same protocol. Patients were evaluated for pain (visual analog scale score), functional status, and active and passive joint ROM at 1, 3, and 6 months and 1 year after the injection. Results: The follow-up rate was 82.6%, and significantly lower VAS scores were recorded in all periods in the multisite-injection group compared with the single-injection group (P 1/4 .01). In terms of active and passive ROM, the follow-up results were significantly better in the multisite-injection group (P < .05). Significantly higher functional scores were recorded in the multisite-injection group (P < .05). Conclusions: Both treatments were effective in patients with primary frozen shoulder. However, the multisiteinjection technique provided better pain palliation, better ROM restoration, and better functional results than the single glenohumeral injection in patients with primary frozen shoulder who were treated with the same physiotherapy regimen. Level of Evidence: Level I, prognostic comparative study.