EFAS Score - Validation of Finnish and Turkish Versions by the Score Committee of the European Foot and Ankle Society (EFAS)

Uygur M. E. , Rıchter M.

FOOT AND ANKLE SURGERY, vol.26, no.3, pp.250-253, 2020 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 26 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.fas.2020.03.004
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.250-253



The Score Committee of the European Foot and Ankle Society (EFAS) developed, validated, and published the EFAS Score in seven European languages (English, German, French, Italian, Polish, Dutch, Swedish). From other languages under validation, the Finnish and Turkish versions finished data acquisition and underwent further validation.


The EFAS Score was developed and validated in three stages: 1) item (question) identification (completed during initial validation study), 2) item reduction and scale exploration (completed during initial validation study), 3) confirmatory analyses and responsiveness of Finnish and Turkish version (completed during initial validation study in seven other languages). The data were collected pre-operatively and post-operatively at a minimum follow-up of 3 months and mean follow-up of 6 months. Item reduction, scale exploration, confirmatory analyses and responsiveness were executed using classical test theory and item response theory.


The internal consistency of the scale was confirmed in the Finnish and Turkish versions (Cronbach's Alpha > 0.8). Responsiveness was good, with moderate to large effect sizes in both languages, and evidence of a statistically significant positive association between the EFAS Score and patient-reported improvement.


The Finnish and Turkish EFAS Score versions were successfully validated in the orthopaedic ankle and foot surgery patients, including a wide variety of foot and ankle pathologies. All score versions are freely available at www.efas.co.